passage3注解:标题为红色,翻译为蓝色,分析为绿色。 ????????during the past generation, the american middle-class family that once could count on hard work and fair play to keep itself financially secure has been transformed by economic risk and new realties. now a pink slip(粉色的滑倒,指的是员工解雇通知书), a bad diagnosis, or a disappearing spouse(配偶) can reduce a family from solidly middle class to newly poor in a few months.?
????????in just one generation, millions of mothers have gone to work, transforming basic family economics. scholars, policymakers, and critics of all stripes have debated the social implications of these changes, but few have looked at the side effect: family risk has risen as well. today’s families have budgeted to the limits of theirs new two-paycheck status. as a result, they have lost the parachute(降落伞,保护伞) they once had in times of financial setback(挫折,阻碍)—a back-up earner (usually mom) who could go into the workforce if the primary earner got laid off or fell sick. this “added-worker effect” could support the safety net offered by unemployment insurance or disability insurance to help families weather bad times. but today, a disruption to family fortunes can no longer be made up with extra income from an otherwise-stay-at-home partner.

1.of all stripes在这里是很多的条纹的意思,言外之意就是“形形色色多种多样的”

????????during the same period, families have been asked to absorb much more risk in their retirement income. steelworkers, airline employees, and now those in the auto industry are joining millions of families who must worry about interest rates, stock market fluctuation, and the harsh reality that they may outlive their retirement money. for much of the past year, president bush campaigned to move social security to a savings-account model, with retirees trading much or all of their guaranteed payments for payments depending on investmentreturns. for younger families, the picture(这里picture,代指“这种情况,年轻家庭情况”)?is not any better. both the absolute cost of healthcare and the share of it borne by families have risen—and newly fashionable health-savings plans are spreading from legislative halls to wal-mart workers, with much higher deductibles([保险]免赔额) and a large new dose of investment risk for families’ future healthcare. even demographics are working against the middle class family, as the odds of having a weak elderly parent—and all the attendant need for physical and financial assistance—have jumped eightfold in just one generation.
????????from the middle-class family perspective, much of this, understandably, looks far less like an opportunity to exercise more financial responsibility, and a good deal more like a frightening acceleration of the wholesale(批发的,大规模的(这里取这个意思))?shift of financial risk onto their already overburdened shoulders. the financial fallout has begun, and the political fallout may not be far behind.
一、文章结构分析这是一篇议论文。
本文是一篇关于美国中产阶级面临危机的文章,
第一段指出现在的美国中产阶级很难保持经济状况稳定,
第二段分析原因之一:母亲外出工作使家庭的经济风险上升。
第三段分析原因之二:布什政府的改革措施、健康储蓄计划的推出都对中产阶级家庭提出了新的挑战,即家庭被要求承担的经济风险和负担增加。
最后一段总结了上述经济威胁,即政府把金融风险转嫁给中产阶级家庭,并指出经济问题可能会带来政治后果。

31. today’s double-income families are at greater financial risk in that
[a] the safety net they used to enjoy has disappeared.
[b] their chances of being laid off have greatly increased.
[c] they are more vulnerable to changes in family economics.
[d] they are deprived of unemployment or disability insurance.
31.如今的双职工家庭面临更大的财务风险,是因为 。
[a] 他们曾经拥有的安全保障消失了
[b] 他们被解雇的概率大大增加了
[c] 他们更容易因家庭经济状况变化而受到打击
[d] 他们被剥夺了失业或残疾保险金

32. as a result of president bush’s reform, retired people may have
[a] a higher sense of security.
[b] less secured payments.
[c] less chance to invest.
[d] a guaranteed future.
32.布什总统的改革举措的结果是,退休人员可能拥有 。
[a] 更强的安全感
[b] 付款风险更大
[c] 更少的投资机会
[d] 一个有保障的未来

33. according to the author, health-savings plans will
[a] help reduce the cost of healthcare.
2007年考研英语阅读真题及解析【第三篇】(2007年考研英语一阅读答案及解析)插图

[b] popularize among the middle class.
[c] compensate for the reduced pensions.
[d] increase the families’ investment risk.
33.根据作者所说,健康储蓄计划将 。
[a] 有助于减少医疗保健费用
[b] 在中产阶级中得到普及
[c] 补偿减少的养老金
[d] 增加家庭的投资风险

34. it can be inferred from the last paragraph that
[a] financial risks tend to outweigh political risks.
[b] the middle class may face greater political challenges.
[c] financial problems may bring about political problems.
[d] financial responsibility is an indicator of political status.
34.从末段可以推断出 。
[a] 财政方面的风险往往超过政治风险
[b] 中产阶级可能面临更大的政治挑战
[c] 财政方面的问题也许会带来政治问题
[d] 财政方面的责任是政治地位的指标

35. which of the following is the best title for this text?
[a] the middle class on the alert
[b] the middle class on the cliff
[c] the middle class in conflict
[d] the middle class in ruins
35.以下哪一项是本文的最佳题目?
[a] 警惕的中产阶级
[b] 处于危险边缘的中产阶级
[c] 处在矛盾中的中产阶级
[d] 没落的中产阶级

二、核心词汇与超纲词汇1. middle-class adj. 中层社会的,中产阶级的
2. count on 依靠,指望
3. fair play 按规则比赛;公平办事
4. pink slip 解雇通知书
5. spouse n. 配偶(指夫或妻
6. debate v./ n. 争论,辩论
7. implication n. 牵连,含义,暗示
8. parachute n. 降落伞
9. disruption n. 中断,瓦解,破坏
10. absorb vt. 吸收,吸引
11. retirement income 退休收入
12. stock market 股票市场
13. fluctuation n. 波动, 起伏
14. harsh adj. 粗糙的;刺耳的;严厉的
15. outlive v. 比……长命,比……耐久
16. campaign v. 参加运动,领导运动
17. legislative adj. 立法的 n. 立法机关
18. deductible adj. 可扣除的
19. demographic adj. 人口统计学的
20. odds n. 可能的机会,几率
21. attendant adj. 伴随的,附带的
22. perspective n. 角度,观点;远景
23. acceleration n. 加速度
24. wholesale n. 批发,趸售 adj. 批发的
25. overburden vt. 负担过多 n. 过重的负担
26. fallout n. (坏的)后果
三、阅读答案:c b d c b四、全文翻译:? ????????在上一代人中,原本依靠努力工作和公平竞争就能保持经济状况稳定的美国中产阶级家庭因经济风险和新的现实状况而发生了变化。现在,一张解雇通知书,一个恶性诊断结果,或者配偶的离去,都可以使一个稳固的中产阶级家庭在几个月内成为新的贫困户。
????????仅仅大约一代人的时间里,数百万母亲出去工作,从而改变了基本的家庭经济结构。各行各业的学者、政策制定者以及批评家都在讨论这些变化的社会意义,但是很少有人看到其副作用:家庭风险也提高了。如今家庭的开支预算达到了新的双薪家庭的极限。结果,他们失去了经济困顿时期的“保护伞”——当家庭主要经济支柱失业或生病时还有候补者(通常是母亲)可以出去工作。“次要工作者效果”能够加强失业保险或伤残保险提供的安全保障,以 助家庭渡过难关。但是如今,家庭财产遭受的巨大损失再也不能通过原来赋闲在家的另一半获得的工作得以弥补。
????????与此同时,家庭被要求承担更多的退休收入方面的风险。钢铁工人、航空公司雇员以及现在汽车企业的员工都正在加入上百万家庭的行列,这些家庭必须担忧利率、股票市场的波动以及退休金不够用的严峻现实。去年的大半年之中,布什总统致力于将社会保障体系变成个人储蓄账户模式。在这种模式下,退休人员将他们的大部分或全部有保障的退休金变为依赖回报率的投资。对于较年轻的家庭来说,境况也不比老年人家庭更好。医疗保健的绝对成本以及其中家庭承担的份额都已提高,而且新近流行的健康储蓄计划正从议会大厅流传到沃尔玛超市的员工那里。此计划意味着未来家庭的医疗保健将需要支付更高的预付额并面临大量新增的投资风险。甚至人口统计学的统计结果(人口结构变化)都对中产阶级家庭不利,家庭中出现一个年老力衰的父(母)亲——以及随之而来的精力和经济援助的需要——的几率在一代人的时间里增加了八倍。
????????可以理解,从中产阶级家庭的角度看,上述现象根本不像是履行更多经济责任的机会,而是把经济风险大规模转移到他们已经不堪重负的肩膀上的加速过程。经济不良后果已经显现,政治影响也不会太远了。

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