1、 2019年全国硕士研究生招生考试英语(一)试题directions:all available on our smartphones.on batteries, and batteries can die faster than we realize. when you find yourself 6 a trail, but not in a completely 7 area of land, you have to answer twoand where is the nearest water source? humansh o you find, you should 10 see

2、 signs ofpeople.2if youve explored the area before, keep an eye out for familiar sightsyou may be 11 how quicklyidentifying a distinctive rock or tree can restore yourbearings.another 12 : climb high and look for signs of human habitation.should be able to 14 gaps in the tree line due to roads, trai

3、n tracks, and other paths people carve 15 thewoods. head toward these 16 to find a way out. at night, scan the horizon for 17light sources, such ascsomeb yetc so sectionenglands top economist, andrew haldane. he quotes a giant of classical economics, alfred marshall, indescribing this financial impa

4、tience as acting like “children who pick the plums out of their pudding to eatthem at once” rather than putting them aside to be eaten last.sevenhighquarterlyprofitsfromcompanies,canhinderafirmseffortstoinvestinlong-termresearchor to build up customerloyalty. this has been dubbed “quarterlycapitalis

5、m”. in addition, new digital technologies have allowed more rapid trading of equities, quicker use ofinformation, and thus shorter attention spans in financial markets. “there seems to be a predominance ofshort-term thinking at the expense of long-term investing,” said commissioner daniel gallagher

6、of the ussecurities and exchange commission in a speech this week. in the us, the sarbanes-oxley act of 2002 has pushed most public companies to deferperformancebonusesforseniorexecutivesbyaboutayear,slightlyhelpingreduce“short-termism.”toperformance. within companies, the right compensation design

7、can provide incentives for executives to britainsnewrule is a reminder to21.according to paragraph 1, one motive in imposing the new rule istoathe solid structure of publicly tradedcompanies. cpatience as a corporatevirtuedfrustration of risk-takingbankersisoftenconsideredaproductofaconsumererainhig

8、hereducation,inwhichstudentsaretreatedlikecustomerstobepleased. butanother,relatedforceapolicyoftenburieddeep in course catalogs called“grade forgiveness”is helping raisegpas.themostrecentgradeorthehighestgradeistheonlyonethatcountsincalculatingastudentsoverall gpa.the use of this little-known

9、practice has accelerated in recent years, as colleges continue to do theirutmost to keep students in school (and paying tuition) and improve their graduation rates.when this practice first started decades ago, it was usually limited to freshmen, to give them a second chance totake a class in their f

10、irst year if they struggled in their transition to college-level courses. but now mostcolleges, save for many selective campuses, allow all undergraduates, and even graduate students, to get their lowgrades forgiven.encouragingcriticaland anything that raises gpasindeed,gradeforgivenessisjustanother

11、waythatuniversitiesarerespondingtoconsumersbthe influence of consumerculture. cstudents indifference togpas.dthe change of coursecatalogs.bto increase universities income from tuition. ctoprepare graduates for a challenging future. dto helpfreshmen adapt to collegelearning.29.what does the phrase “t

12、o be aligned” (para. 6) most probablymean?ato counterbalance eachother.bto be contradictory to eachother.aassessing itsfeasibility.blisting its long-runeffects.ccomparing different views onit.danalyzing the causes behindit.frankenstein; or, the modernprometheus , by mary shelley. even before the inv

13、ention of the electric light bulb, the author produced aremarkable work of speculative fiction that would foreshadow many ethical questions to be raised bytechnologies yet to come.todaytherapidgrowthofartificialintelligence(ai)raisesfundamentalquestions:“whatisidentity, or consciousness? what makes

14、humanshumans?”what is being called artificial general intelligence, machines that would imitate the way humans think,continues to evade scientists. yet humans remain fascinated by the idea of robots that would look, move, and just how people think is still far too complex to be understood, let alone

15、 reproduced, says davidexplaining what consciousness actually is and how you could ever build a machine to get there.” but that doesnt mean crucial ethical issues involving ai arent at hand. the coming use ofautonomous vehicles, for example, poses thorny ethical questions. human drivers sometimes mu

16、st makesplit-seconddecisions. their reactionsmaybeacomplexcombinationofinstantreflexes,inputfrompastdrivingexperiences,andwhattheireyesandearstelltheminthatmoment.ai “vision” today is not nearly as sophisticated as that of humans. and to anticipate every imaginabledriving situation is a difficult pr

17、ogramming problem.whenever decisions are based on masses of data, “you quickly get into a lot of ethical questions,” notestan kiat how, chief executive of a singapore-based agency that is helping the government develop a voluntarycode for the ethical use of ai. along with singapore, other government

18、s and mega-corporations arebritain is setting up a data ethics center.onjune7googlepledgednotto“designordeployai”thatwouldcause“overallharm,”ortodevelopai-directedweaponsoruseaiforsurveillancethatwouldviolateinternationalnorms. to put it another way: how can we make sure that the thinking of intelli

19、gent machines onlythenwilltheybeusefulservantsandnotfrankenstein s out-of-controlbhas aroused muchcuriosity.cis still beyond ourcapacity.states will be able to force more people to pay sales tax when they make online purchases under asupreme court decision thursday that will leave shoppers with ligh

20、ter wallets but is a big financial win forstates. thesupremecourtsopinionthursdayoverruledapairofdecades-olddecisionsthatstatessaid cost themthe decisions made it more difficult for states to collect sales taxcustomersweregenerallyresponsibleforpayingthe sales tax to the statejustice anthony kennedy

21、 wrote that the previous decisions were flawed. “each year the physicalpresence rule becomes further removed from economic reality and results in significantrevenuelossestothestates,”hewroteinanopinionjoinedbyfourotherjustices. kennedywrote that the rule “limited on online purchases already.have bee

22、n collecting sales tax nationwide because they typically have physical stores in whatever state apurchase is being shipped to. a, with its network of warehouses, also collects sales tax in everyuntil now, many sellers that have a physical presence in only a single state or a few states have beenable

23、 to avoid charging sales taxes when they ship to addresses outside those states. sellers that use ebay and etsy, which provide platforms for smaller sellers, also havent beencboosted growth in statesrevenue.cinternet entrepreneurs. directions:the following paragraphs are given in a wrong order. for

24、questions 41-45, you are required to reorganizethese paragraphs into a coherent article by choosing from the list a-g and filling them into the numberedboxes. paragraph c and f have been correctly placed. mark your answers on answer sheet. (10 points)a.these tools can help you win every argumentnot

25、in the unhelpful sense of beating your opponents but in thebetter sense of learning about the issues that divide people, learning why they disagree with us and learning totalk and work together with them. if we readjust our view of argumentsfrom a verbal fight or tennis game to areasoned exchange th

26、rough which we all gain mutual respect and understandingthen we change the verynature of what it means to “win” an argument.best of an argumentand that is to avoid it.” this aversion to arguments is common, but it depends on aposition, formulate an argument for what you claim and honestly ask yourse

27、lf whether your argument is anygood. next time you talk with someone who takes a stand, ask them to give you a reason for their view. spellout their argument fully and charitably. assess its strength impartially. raise objections and listen carefully totheir replies.badbutthatf.these views of argume

28、nts also undermine reason. if you see a conversation as a fight orthey can help you winbealmosteverybody else loses. this kind of thinking is why so many people try to avoid arguments, especially about41. 42. f43. 44. c45.part c directions: it was only after i started to write a weekly column about

29、the medical journals, and began to readscientific papers from beginning to end, that i realised just how bad much of the medical literature frequentlywas. i came to recognise various signs of a bad paper: the kind of paper that purports to show that people whoeat more than one kilo of broccoli a wee

30、k were 1.17 timesmorelikely than those who eat less to suffer late in life from pernicious anaemia. (46) there is a greatdeal of thiskind of nonsense in the medical journals which, when taken up by broadcasters and thelay press, generatesboth health scares and short-lived dietary enthusiasms.why is

31、so much bad science published? a recent paper, titled “the natural selection of badquestion. it says that the problem is not merely that people do bad science, but that our current system ofcareer advancement positively encourages it. what is important is not truth, but publication, which has become

32、almost(48) attempts have been made to curb this tendency, for example, by trying to incorporatethat is to say the number of times a paper has been quoted elsewhere in the scientific literature, the assumptionbeing that an important paper will be cited more often than one of small account. (49) this

33、would bereasonable if it were not for the fact that scientists can easily arrange to cite themselves in their futurepublications, or get associates to do so for them in return for similar favours.boiling down an individuals output to simple metrics, such as number of publications orjournalimpacts,en

34、tailsconsiderablesavingsintime,energyandambiguity.unfortunately,thelong-suppose you are working for the “aiding rural primary school” project of your university. write anemail to answer the inquiry from an international student volunteer, specifying the details of the project.1)describe the pictureb

35、riefly,2)interpret the implied meaning,and3)give yourcomments. 2019年英语( )试题参考答案sectioniuseofenglish1.a.few9.c.so10.b.eventually parta23.c.adverse.26.b.theinfluenceofconsumerculture.text2text3text4 40.b.givesafactualaccountofitanddiscussesitsconsequences.partb41. b. in his 1936 work how to win friend

36、s and influence people , dale carnegie wrote: “there isarguments is common, but it depends on a mistaken view of arguments that causes profoundproblems for our personal and social livesand in many ways misses the point of arguing in thefirstplace.42.g.carnegiewouldberightifargumentswerefights,whichi

37、showweoftenthinkofthem.likephysical fights, verbal fights can leave both sides bloodied. even when you win, you end up nobetteroff.yourprospectswouldbealmostasdismalifargumentswereevenjustcompetitionslike,say,tennisgames.parisofopponentshittheballbackandforthuntilonewinneremergesfromall who entered.

38、 everybody else loses. this kind of thinking is why so many people try to avoidreligion.43.e.thereisabetterwaytowinarguments.imaginethatyoufavorincreasingtheminimumwageinourstate,andidonot.ifyouyell,“yes,”andiyell.“no,”neitherofuslearnsanything.weneitherunderstand nor respect each other, and we have

39、 no basis for compromise or cooperation. incontrast,supposeyougiveareasonableargument:thatfull-timeworkersshouldnothavetoliveinpoverty.thenicounterwithanotherpartof evaluationis callingoutbadarguments,butwe alsoneedto admit45. a. these tools can help you win every argumentnot in the unhelpful sense

40、of beatingyour opponents but in the better sense of learning about the issues that divide people,learningwhytheydisagreewithusandlearningtotalkandworktogetherwiththem.ifwereadjust our view of argumentsfrom a verbal fight or tennis game to a reasonedexchange through which we all gain mutual respect a

41、nd understandingthen we changetheverynatureofwhatitmeansto“win”anargument.partc47. 今天,任何个 科研岗位的申请者需要发表 章的数量 短短 年前申报同 岗位时整整翻了 番。48. 为遏制这 倾向已经采取了若 措施, 如在评定岗位申请者的论 时,尝试引项兼顾数量和质量的评估指标。 我引 ,或找同 引 以回报项措施本该是合理的。sectionwritingparta51、参考范文dearwilliam, i am exceedingly delighted to receive your letter in whic

42、h you inquiredsomethingaboutthe“aidingruralprimaryschools”。i,asamemberoftheproject,amwritingyouthisletterforthepurposeofinformingyousomeofthenecessaryinformation。 first and foremost , the theme of the project is to help those ruralprimary schools in remote areas by arranging some activities , such a

43、ssending various kinds of books about different aspects to those lovelystudents , which can not only broaden their horizon and enrich their life ,but also cultivate their ability of thinking and learning independently andcritically 。 in addition , the volunteers should have the character ofdiligence

44、,coupledwithanoptimisticandpleasantpersonality,whichwillassure them of positive attitude when facing some setbacks during theprocessoftheseactivities。52、参考范文 as is vividly portrayed in the cartoon , two people are climbing themountain together 。 one of them sits on a higher step with his backpackbes

45、idehisfeetandcomplains,“imtired,idontwanttoclimbanymore。”however , the partner carrying a bag catches up with him and hands him abottle of water , he says , “come on , take a break then continue toclimb。”underthepictureliesacaption:ontheway。 theimpressivedrawinghasprofoundlyrevealedthattheprocessofo

46、urlifeisjust like the mountain-climbing and only by adjusting our own pace andpersisting in our goals can we reach a higher life realmrealizing thedreams for which we are always longing 。 for one thing , all kinds ofinterference make us give up sticking to dreams 。 for another , we haventintegrated

47、dreams into our life because of being anxious for success 。 themostcommoninstanceisthatwhenwewanttoimproveourhealthorobtainabetterfigure,majorityofusmaydeterminetodoexercise,butoftenendinlazinessandvariousexcuses。 as the saying goes , the end of man is the beginning of god , onlythose who do their b

48、est can get the favor of heaven and enjoy the joy ofvictory 。 it is advisable for us , positive climbers , to view persistence andstruggle as a lifestyle 。 only by taking these approvals into action can weenjoytherichnessandbeautyoflife。(提示:以下答案序号是错误的(选项打乱了),答案内容和解析是正确的,仅供参考)sectioniuseofenglish1、答案

49、c。few试题考点词义辨析和上下文语境解析此题词义辨析和上下文语境。首句为主题句:今天,我们生活在一个gps系统,数字地图和其他导航应用程序都在我们的智能手机上唾手可得的世界。空格所在句指出:我们中_在没有电话,个人gps或其他导航工具的情况下直接走进树林。本句有without与few构成双重否定表肯定,根据语义应该填入few(几乎没有人),符合文意。2、答案c。run试题考点词组搭配解析此题考查词组搭配。runonbattery表示手机用电池发动,运行。其他选项: put on (穿上;使运转);take on (承担;呈现);come on (快点;开始),语义不通顺。故正确答案为crun

50、。 解析此题考查逻辑关系。空格所在句译文:_你在没有电话或指南针的情况下迷路,_找不到北方,我们有一些技巧可以 助你导航_文明。此处为假设的情况,故填入if(如果)符合上下文的表达。其余选项:since(因为;自从),though(虽然),until(直到)带入后,语义不通顺。故正确答案为bif。4、答案d。literally试题考点词义辨析解析空格所在句译文:_你在没有电话或指南针的情况下迷路,_找不到北方,我们有一些技巧可以 助你导航_文明。此处literally表示确实地,真正地,带入原文语义通顺:你的确找不到北方。其余选项:formally(正式地),relatively(相对地),g

51、radually(逐渐地)带入后,语义不通顺。故正确答案为dliterally。解析空格所在句译文:_你在没有电话或指南针的情况下迷路,_找不到北方 , 我 们 有 一 些 技 巧 可 以 助 你 导 航 _ 文 明 。 前 文 讲 lost ( 迷 路 ) , 此 处 填 入back(回到)文明之地相互呼应,故正确答案为aback。6、答案boff试题考点词义辨析和词组搭配解析此处考察词义辨析和词组搭配。空格所在句的句意为:当你_路径,但不是完全_的区域,你需要回答两个问题:在这个特殊区域,哪儿条路是下坡?哪儿里有最近的水源?通过后半句的问题,能够了解到前面是当你偏离轨道,迷失踪迹的时候

52、。b选项off(远离,离开)符合语义要求;a选项onto(在。之上),c选项across(穿过,横穿),d选项alone(独自地,单独地)带入空格后,语义不通顺,均排除。故正确答案为b选项off。7、答案dunfamiliar试题考点词义辨析解析此处考察词义辨析。空格所在句的前一句说迷失踪迹,偏离轨道。空格所在的后半句but开头,所填入的形容词词需要和前面构成转折的逻辑关系,虽然偏离轨道,但也不是完全不熟悉的路。只有d选项unfamiliar(不熟悉的,不常见的)符合要求;a选项unattractive(不吸引人的),b选uncrowded(不拥挤的,宽敞的),c选项 unchanged (

53、未 改 变 的 , 无 变 化 的 ) 带 入 后 , 语 义 不 通 顺 。 故 正 确 答 案 为dunfamiliar。8、答案cway试题考点词义辨析和上下文语境解析此处考察词义辨析和上下文语境。空格所在句的句意:你需要回答两个问题:在这个特殊区域,哪儿个_是下坡?哪儿里有最近的水源?空格处所需的名词需要符合上下文语境。c选项way(道路)符合语义要求;a选项site(地点,位置,场所),b选项point(要点),d选项place(地方,地点)带入空格后,语义不通顺,均排除。故正确答案为c选项way。 解析此处考察词逻辑关系。空格所在句的前一句指出:生活在山谷中的人,基本都靠淡水为生。

54、后面也就是空格所在句:_如果你下山,沿着水走,你会发现人类的迹象。很明显空格处所填入的连词和前面构成因果的逻辑关系,只有a选项so(所以,因此)符合要求;b选项yet(但是,然而),c选instead(代替,反而),d选项besides(此外,而且)带入后,语义不通顺。故正确答案为aso。10、答案deventually试题考点词义辨析解析此处考察词义辨析。空格所在句的句意:所以如果你下山,沿着你找到的水一直走,你_会看到人类的迹象。,空格处所需的副词需要符合本句语境 并 是 句 子 语 义 通 顺 。 d 选 项 eventually ( 最 后 , 终 于 ) 符 合 语 义 要 求 ;a

55、 选 项immediately ( 立 即 , 立 刻 ) , b 选 项 intentionally ( 故 意 地 , 有 意 地 ) , c 选 项unexpectedly(意外地,出乎意料地)带入空格后,语义不通顺,均排除。故正确答案为d选项eventually。解析空格所在句提到:ifyouveexploredtheareabefore,keepaneyeout for familiar sightsyou may be surprised how quickly spotting adistinctiverockortreecanrestoreyourbearings(如果你之前去

56、过这个地方,一定要注意熟悉的景象,你或许会_快速识别出一块特征明显的岩石或树木能 助你恢复记忆)。此句明显体现了积极褒义的感情色彩,根据这个线索,可直接确定a选项surprised为正确答案,即:你或许会感到惊讶。12、答案b。option解析本文第一段提到:“如果你在没有电话或指南针的情况下迷路了,而且你真的找不到北方,我们有一些技巧可以 助你回到文明社会”。空格所在处提到:另一个_:登到高处寻找有人类住所的标志,因此此处的another_应该与tricks构成总分关系,即,空格处所填的名词应与tricks语义相近。只有b选项option(选择,办法)符合要求。13、答案d。forexamp


58、lookfor语义相近,故选择spot(识别,发现)。 解析空格处需填入介词来和前面的动词carve及后面的名词woods构成顺畅的语义搭配。carve_woods:在森林中开辟道路,b选项through用法最恰当,故为正确答案。16、答案dbreaks试题考点上下文语义衔接+词义辨析解析本题空前有一个指示代词these ,通过语义,“these 16 ” 指代上文的“roads,traintracks,andotherpaths”,并由定语从句“peoplecarvethroughthewoods”(人们在森林中开辟的)修饰。从语义上来看,breaks最合适。解析本空所处的句子“scanfo


60、ndscape”,由语义得知此处应该填“标记”,所以选marks。试 题 考 点 上 下 文 语 义 + 动 词 辨解析本空主要考察语义搭配,所填动词需要与主语“tireblazes,tiretracksand other fearures” (轮胎,轮胎痕迹和其他标记),宾语you ,以及不定式 tocivilization(文明)之间构成完整语义,所以此处填lead“引导”最合适。sectioniireadingcomprehensionpartatext1解析根据题干可知这是一道典型的细节题。根据题干关键词“paragraph1”和“one motive in imposing the

61、new rule” 回 文 定 位 在 第 一 段 第 三 句 “the mainpurpose of this clawback rule is to hold bankers accountable for harmful risk-takingandtorestorepublictrustinfinancialinstitutions。”(这个规则主要目的是让银行家为不良风险负责以及修复公众对金融机构的信任),对比所给四个选项,只有a项enhancebankssenseofresponsibility(增加银行的责任感)与原文表述一致,故为正确答案。b项“helpcorporations

62、achieveprofits”( 助公司获得利润)以及c项“buildanewsystemoffinancialregulation”(建立新的金融监管体系)在原文中并未提及。d项“guaranteethebonusesoftopexecutives”(保证高管的奖金)与原文“anyguaranteedbonusoftopexecutivescouldbedelayed10years”(高管的任何有保证的奖金会被延迟10年)表述相反,故排除。 解 析 根 据 题 干 中 的 “alfred marshall” 回 文 定 位 在 第 二 段 最 后 一 句 “alfredmarshall , in describing this financial impatience as acting like 。”,其中的“thisfinancialimpatience”指上文提到的“short-termism”,也就是alfred


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