2020年全国硕士研究生招生考试
英语(一)试题及答案解析
section i use of english
directions:
read the following text. choose the best word (s) for each numbered blank and mark a, b, c or d on the answer sheet. (10 points)
even if families don’t …roast. 1 a cold winter’s day, few culinary pleasure can 2 it. yet as we report now, the food police are determined that this 3 should be rendered yet another guilty pleasure 4 to damage our health.
the food standards authority (fsa) has 5 a public …cooked 6 high temperatures. this means that people should 7 crisping their roast potatoes, reject thin-crust pizzas and only 8 toast their bread. but where is the evidence to support such alarmist advice? 9 studies …neurological damage in mice, there is no 10 evidence that it causes cancer in humans.
scientists say the compound is 11 to cause cancer but have no hard scientific proof. 12 the precautionary principle, it could be argued that it is 13 to follow the fsa advice. 14 , it was rumoured … to prove a 15 .
doubtless a piece of boiled beef can always be 16 up on sunday alongside … be worth living? 17 , the fsa says it is not telling people to cut out roast foods 18 , but to reduce their lifetime intake. however, their 19 risks coming … just 20 with no one listening.
1.[a]in [b]towards [c]on [d]till
2.[a]match [b]express [c]satisfy [d]influence
3.[a]patience [b]enjoyment [c]surprise [d]concern
4.[a]intensified [b]privileged [c]compelled [d]guaranteed
5.[a]issued [b]received [c]ignored [d]cancelled
6.[a]under [b]at [c]for [d]by
7.[a]forget [b]regret [c]finish [d]avoid
8.[a]partially [b]regularly [c]easily [d]initially
9.[a]unless [b]since [c]if [d]while
10.[a]secondary [b]external [c]conclusive [d]negative
11.[a]insufficient [b]bound [c]likely [d]slow
12.[a]on the basis of [b]at the cost of [c]in addition to [d]in contrast to
13.[a]interesting [b]advisable [c]urgent [d]fortunate
14.[a]as usual [b]in particular [c]by definition [d]after all
15.[a]resemblance [b]combination [c]connection [d]pattern
16.[a]made [b]served [c]saved [d]used
17.[a]to be fair [b]for instance [c]to be brief [d]in general
18.[a]reluctantly [b]entirely [c]gradually [d]carefully
19.[a]promise [b]experience [c]campaign [d]competition
20.[a]follow up [b]pick up [c]open up [d]end up
1. 答案 c【on】
解析:本题为语义题。本题考查和题干中a winter day搭配的介词,c项on与具体某一天搭配时,表示在某日,最符合原文语义。所以本题选c。
干扰选项:a选项in(在……内),b选项towards(朝……),d选项till(直到……为止),均不符合原文语义。
2. 答案a【match】
解析:本题为语义题。本题考查符合主语culinary pleasures和宾语it的动词词义。还原it指代的内容,为sunday roast。few表示很少,几乎没有的,表示否定,在句中起加强语气的作用。a项match表示相配、比得上,最符合原文语义:几乎没有什么饮食能比得上一顿周日烤肉大餐所带来的快乐。所以本题选a。
干扰选项:b选项express(表达),c选项satisfy(使满意),d选项influence(影响),均不符合原文语义。
3. 答案b【enjoyment】
解析:本题为逻辑题。根据本空前代词this,可知,空白处语义在上文提到过。enjoyment表示乐趣,是对上文pleasures的同义替换,最符合原文语义。所以本题选b。
干扰选项:a选项patience(耐心),c选项surprise(惊喜),d选项concern(担忧),均不符合原文语义。
4. 答案d【guaranteed】
解析:本题为逻辑题。题干中的another guilty pleasure表示另一种罪恶的快乐,to damage our health表示伤害我们的健康,根据二者的语义一致关系,可知,罪恶暗示出对身体健康造成的伤害是确定的。d项guaranteed表示确定的,最符合原文语义。所以本题选d。
干扰选项:a选项intensified(强化的),b选项privileged(有特权的),c选项compelled(被强迫的),均不符合原文语义。
5. 答案a【issued】
解析:本题为语义题。根据空白处后的a public warning可知,本题考查搭配warning的动词。a项issued表示正式发布,最符合原文语义。所以本题选a。
干扰选项:b选项received(收到),c选项ignored(忽略),d选项cancelled(取消),均不符合原文语义。
6. 答案b【at】
解析:本题为语义题。根据题干cooked和空白处后的high temperatures可知,本题考查与high temperatures搭配的介词。b项at表示在……、以……,at high temperatures表示在高温时,符合原文语义。所以本题选b。
干扰选项:a选项under(在……下),c选项for(为了),d选项by(通过),均不符合原文语义。
7. 答案d【avoid】
解析:本题为逻辑题。根据and可知,并列连接的语义相近,根据另外两个动词reject(拒绝)和and后的only toast(只烤)可知,并列的语义倾向为否定的。d项avoid表示避免,最符合原文语义。所以本题选d。
干扰选项:a选项forget(忘记),b选项regret(后悔),c选项finish(完成),均不符合原文语义。
8. 答案a【partially】
解析:本题为逻辑题。根据题干中的and可知,并列各成分的语义相近。根据空白处前的reject thin-crust pizzas(拒绝薄皮披萨)可推知,and后的语义与拒绝温度过高相近,a项partially表示部分地、不完全地,最符合原文语义:面包只烤半分熟。所以本题选a。
干扰选项:b选项regularly(定期地),c选项easily(容易地),d选项initially(起初地),均不符合原文语义。
9. 答案d【while】
解析:本题为逻辑题。题干中studies have shown that…表示,研究表明,丙烯酰胺能导致老鼠的神经受损。there is no…表示没有丙烯酰胺在人类中致癌的证据。根据二者语义关系可知,两个分句存在让步关系,d项while表示尽管,最符合原文语义。所以本题选d。
干扰选项:a选项unless(除非),b选项since(既然),c选项if(如果),均不符合原文语义。
10. 答案c【conclusive】
解析:本题为语义题。题干中there is no ____ evidence that it…表示,没有丙烯酰胺在人类中致癌的证据。c项conclusive表示确定的、决定性的,最符合原文语义:没有丙烯酰胺在人类中致癌的确定的证据。所以本题选c。
干扰选项:a选项secondary(次要的),b选项external(外部的),d选项negative(否定的),均不符合原文语义。
11. 答案c【likely】
解析:本题为逻辑题。根据题干中的but可知,but前后语义相反,have no hard scientific proof表示没有科学证据,所以c项likely表示很有可能的,最符合原文语义。所以本题选c。
干扰选项:a选项insufficient(不足的),b选项bound(必定的),d选项slow(迟钝的),均不符合原文语义。
12. 答案a【on the basis of】
解析:本题为逻辑题。题干中the precautionary principle表示预防原则;it could be argued that…表示,有人认为应当听从fsa的建议。二者语义一致,a项on the basis of表示根据、基于,最符合原文语义。所以本题选a。
干扰选项:b选项at the cost of(以……为代价),c选项in addition to(除……之外),d选项in contrast to(与……相反的是),均不符合原文语义。
13. 答案 b【advisable】
解析:本题为语义题。根据题干to follow the fsa advice和the precautionary principle可知,根据预防原则,有人认为应该听从fsa的建议。b项advisable表示明智的、可取的,最符合原文语义。所以本题选b。
干扰选项:a选项interesting(有趣的),c选项urgent(紧急的),d选项fortunate(幸运的),均不符合原文语义。
14. 答案 d【after all】
解析:本题为逻辑题。根据空白处逻辑词的位置可知,本题考查上下两句的逻辑关系。分析两句语义:基于预防原则,有人认为听从fsa的建议是明智的;在有证据证明吸烟与癌症有关之前,人们就一直在谣传吸烟会致癌。由两句语义可知,后句和前句间存在让步关系,d项after all表示毕竟,属于让步关系,最符合原文语义。所以本题选d。
干扰选项:a选项as usual(像往常一样),b选项in particular(尤其),c选项by definition(按照定义),均不符合原文语义。
15. 答案c【connection】
解析:本题为逻辑题。根据题干可知,before连接的两个句子存在时间上的先后顺序,即smoking和cancer间存在因果关系的谣传在先,证据(evidence)在后。c项connection表示关联,最符合原文语义:在有证据证明吸烟与癌症有关之前,人们就一直在谣传吸烟会致癌。所以本题选c。
干扰选项:a选项resemblance(相似性),b选项combination(结合),d选项pattern(模式),均不符合原文语义。
16. 答案b【served】
解析:本题为语义题。根据题干a piece of boiled beef和 ____ up间的语义关系可知,本题考查和beef搭配的动词词组。b项served和原文up是动词词组,表示上菜,最符合原文语义:一片煮过的牛肉被端上饭桌。所以本题选b。
干扰选项:a选项made(制作),c选项saved(节省,节约),d选项used(使用),均不符合原文语义。
17. 答案a【to be fair】
解析:本题为逻辑题。根据空白处逻辑词的位置,可知,本题考查上下两句的逻辑关系。上句语义为:那样的话,生活还值得一过吗?空白处所在句的语义为:fsa说这并不是要告诉人们停止吃烧烤食物,而是要告诉人们减少烧烤食物的摄入。由二者语义可知,空白处所在句在对上句的疑问进一步阐释和澄清。a项to be fair表示说实话、公平来讲,最符合原文语义。所以本题选a。
干扰选项:b选项for instance(例如),c选项to be brief(简言之),d选项in general(总的来说),均不符合原文语义。
18. 答案 b【entirely】
解析:本题为逻辑题。根据题干中的not … but可知,前后两个分句间存在转折关系:后半句reduce their lifetime intake表示减少摄入;前半句cut out roast foods ____ 表示停止吃烧烤食物____。b项entirely表示完全地,最符合原文语义:fsa并不是说让人们完全不吃烧烤食物,而是减少摄入量。所以本题选b。
干扰选项:a选项reluctantly(勉强地),c选项gradually(逐渐地),d选项carefully(小心地),均不符合原文语义。
19. 答案c【campaign】
解析:本题为语义题。题干指出,他们的____存在给人一种过于强迫和过分保护的印象的风险。还原代词their,为fsa’s。结合上句可知,fsa发布的警告会让人们误以为烧烤食物完全不能吃。c项campaign表示为实现某种目的而进行的活动,最符合原文语义。所以本题选c。
干扰选项:a选项promise(承诺),b选项experience(经验),d选项competition(竞争),均不符合原文语义。
20. 答案 d【end up】
解析:本题为语义题。根据空白处语义的位置可知,本题考查动词语义。constant health scares表示不断的健康恐慌,no one listening表示没有人在听。d项end up表示以……结束、以……告终,最符合原文语义:不断的健康恐慌却以没人理会告终。所以本题选d。
干扰选项:a选项follow up(接下来),b选项pick up(捡起),c选项open up(揭露,展示),均不符合原文语义。
section ii reading comprehension
part a
directions:
read the following four texts. answer the questions below each text by choosing a, b, c or d. mark
2020考研英语(一)试题及答案解析(完整版)_网易订阅(2020考研英语二阅读翻译)插图
your answers on the answer sheet. (40 points)
text 1
a group of labour mps, among them yvette cooper, are bringing in the new year with a call to institute a uk “town of culture” award. the proposal is that it should sit alongside the existing city … but they generally lack the resources to put together a bid to beat their bigger competitors. a town of culture award could, it is argued, become an annual event, attracting funding and creating jobs.
some might see the proposal as a booby prize for the fact that britain is no longer able to apply for the much more prestigious title of european capital of culture, a sought—after award bagged by glasgow in 1990 and liverpool in 2008. a cynic might speculate that the uk is on the verge of disappearing into an endless fever of self-celebration in its desperation to reinvent itself for the post-brexit world: after town of culture, who knows what will follow village of culture? suburb of culture? hamlet of culture?
it is also wise to recall that …to the community. the really successful holders of such titles are those that do a great deal more than fill hotel bedrooms and bring in high-profile arts events and good press for a year. … but it can be done: glasgow’s year as european capital of culture can certainly be seen as one of a complex series of factors that have turned the city into the powerhouse of art, music and theatre that it remains today.
a “town of culture” could be not just about the arts but about honouring a town’s peculiarities—helping sustain its high street, supporting local facilities and above all celebrating its people and turn it into action.
21. copper and her colleague argue that a “town of culture” award would ______.
[a] consolidate the town city ties in britain
[b] promote cooperation among britain’s towns
[c] increase the economic strength of britain’s towns
[d] focus britain’s limited resources on cultural events
答案【c】increase the economic strength of britain’s towns
解析:本题为细节题。根据题干关键词“town of culture”定位到第一段最后一句:a town of culture award could, it is argued, become an annual event, attracting funding and creating jobs。所以本题选c。
22. according to paragraph 2, the proposal might be regarded by some as ______.
[a] a sensible compromise
[b] a self-deceiving attempt
[c] an eye-catching bonus
[d] an inaccessible target
答案【b】a self-deceiving attempt
解析:本题为细节题。根据题干关键词paragraph 2定位到第二段,在第二段中主要讨论了批评者对这一奖项的看法,其中在②句中提到:the uk is on the verge of disappearing into an endless fever of self-celebration…。其中a self-deceiving attempt是self-celebration的同义替换。所以本题选b。
23. the author suggests that a title holder is successful only if it ______.
[a] endeavor to maintain its image
[b] meets the aspiration of its people
[c] brings its local arts to prominence
[d] commits to its long-term growth
答案【d】commits to its long-term growth
解析:本题为细节题。根据题干关键词title holder定位到第三段③句,该句提出此类头衔成功的持有者做的事情,而在前一句中提到的糟糕的文化年无法给社区带来长久的利益:leaving no lasting benefits to the community,②句与③句形成了对比。所以本题选d。
24. “glasgow” is mentioned in paragraph 3 to present ______. [a] a contrasting case
[b] a supporting example
[c] a background story
[d] a related topic
答案【b】a supporting example
解析:本题为例证题。此题考查了学生对论据的判断。根据题干关键词glasgow和paragraph 3定位到第三段最后一句:but it can be done: glasgow’s year as european capital of culture can certainly be seen as one of a complex series of factors that have turned the city into the powerhouse of art, music and theatre that it remains today。所以本题选b。
25. what is the author’s attitude towards the proposal?
[a] skeptical
[b] objective
[c] favorable
[d] critical
答案【c】favorable
解析:本题为态度题。题干询问作者对the proposal的态度,而整篇文章是作者一对这个提议的分析,其中最后一段:a “town of culture” could be not just about the arts but about honouring a town’s peculiarities—helping sustain its high street, supporting local facilities and above all celebrating its people and turn it into action是对第一段最后一句:a town of culture award could, it is argued, become an annual event, attracting funding and creating jobs的进一步肯定。所以本题选c。
text 2
scientific publishing has long been a licence to print money. scientists need journals in which to publish their research, so they will supply the articles without monetary reward. other scientists perform the specialised work of peer review also for free, because it is a central element in the acquisition of status and the production of scientific knowledge.
with the content of …when the rest of the publishing industry is in an existential crisis.
the dutch giant elsevier, which claims to publish 25% of the scientific papers produced in the world, made profits of …figures seem to rise unstoppably despite increasingly desperate efforts to change them.
the most drastic, and thoroughly illegal, reaction…passing on copies they have themselves legally accessed, shows the legal ecosystem has lost legitimacy among its users and must be transformed so that it works for all participants.
in britain the move towards open access publishing has been driven by funding bodies. in some ways it has been very successful. more than half of all british scientific research is now published under open access terms: either freely available from the moment of publication, or paywalled for a year or more so that the publishers can make a profit before being placed on general release.
yet the new system has not … preparing an article. these range from around 500 to $5,000. a report last year pointed out that the costs both of subscriptions and of these “article preparation costs” had been steadily rising at a rate above inflation. in some ways the scientific publishing …. firms who run the market places. in both cases, we need a rebalancing of power.
26. scientific publishing is seen as “a licence to print money” partly because .
[a] its funding has enjoyed a steady increase
[b] its marketing strategy has been successful
[c] its payment for peer review is reduced
[d] its content acquisition costs nothing
答案【d】its content acquisition costs nothing
解析:本题为细节题。根据题干关键词a licence to print money定位到第一段①句,但此句是第一段的论点句,因此需要在后面句子中找答案:第一段②句supply the articles without monetary reward和第一段③句perform the specialised work of peer review also for free。d项its content acquisition costs nothing是对这两句内容的概括。所以本题选d。
27. according to paragraphs 2 and 3, scientific publishers elsevier have .
[a] thrived mainly on university libraries
[b] gone through an existential crisis
[c] revived the publishing industry
[d] financed researchers generously
答案【a】thrived mainly on university libraries
解析:本题为细节题。根据题干关键词elsevier定位到第三段:the dutch giant elsevier … made profits of more than 900m last year, while uk universities alone spent more than 210m in 2016 to enable researchers to access their own publicly funded research。所以本题选a。
28. how does the author feel about the success of sci-hub?
[a] relieved.
[b] puzzled.
[c] concerned.
[d] encouraged.
答案【d】encouraged
解析:本题为态度题。根据题干关键词the success of sci-hub定位到第四段②句:the legal ecosystem has lost legitimacy among its users and must be transformed so that it works for all participants。所以本题选d。
29. it can be learned from paragraphs 5 and 6 that open access terms . [a] allow publishers some room to make money
[b] render publishing much easier for scientists
[c] reduce the cost of publication substantially
[d] free universities from financial burdens
答案【a】allow publishers some room to make money
解析:本题为细节题。根据题干关键词open access terms定位到第五段③句:so that the publishers can make a profit before being placed on general release。所以本题选a。
30. which of the following characteristics the scientific publishing model?
[a] trial subscription is offered.
[b] labour triumphs over status.
[c] costs are well controlled.
[d] the few feed on the many.
答案【d】the few feed on the many.
解析:本题为细节题。根据题干关键词the scientific publishing model定位到第六段⑤句:huge profits are made by a few big firms who run the market places。所以本题选d。
text 3
progressives often support diversity mandates as a path to equality and a way to level the playing field. but all too often such policies are an insincere form of virtue-signaling that benefits only the most privileged and does little to help average people.
a pair of bills sponsored by massachusetts state senator jason lewis and house speaker pro tempore patricia haddad, to ensure “gender parity” on boards and commissions, provide a case in point.
haddad and lewis are…and commissions will be required to set aside 50 percent of board seats for women by 2022.
the bills are similar to a measure recently adopted …brown admitted that the law, which expressly classifies people on the basis of sex, is probably unconstitutional.
the us supreme court frowns on sex-based classifications unless they are designed to address an “important” policy interest. … the constitutional guarantee of “equal protection”.
but are such government mandates even necessary? female participation on corporate boards may not currently mirror the percentage of women in the general population, but so what?
the number of women on corporate … the boards of global corporations increased by 54 percent.
requiring companies to make gender the primary qualification for board membership will inevitably lead to less experienced private sector boards. that is exactly what happened when norway adopted a nationwide corporate gender quota.
writing in the new republic, alice lee notes that increasing the number of opportunities for board membership without increasing the pool of qualified women to serve on such boards has led to a “golden skirt” phenomenon. where the same elite women scoop up multiple seats on a variety of boards.
next time somebody pushes … self-serving measures that make their sponsors feel good but do little to help average women.
31. the author believes that the bills sponsored by lewis and haddad will ______.
[a] help little to reduce gender bias
[b] pose a threat to the state government
[c] raise women’s position in politics
[d] greatly broaden career options
答案【a】help little to reduce gender bias
解析:本题为细节题。根据题干关键词the bills sponsored by lewis and haddad定位到第二段。段末评论provide a case in point回指上文第一段的does little to help average people。所以本题选a。
32. which of the following is true of the california measure?
[a] it has irritated private business owners.
[b] it is welcomed by the supreme court.
[c] it may go against the constitution.
[d] it will settle the prior controversies.
答案【c】it may go against the constitution.
解析:本题为细节题。根据题干关键词california定位到第四段。由第四段末句is probably unconstitutional可知加州的措施可能违宪。所以本题选c。
33. the author mentions the study by catalyst to illustrate ______.
[a] the harm from arbitrary board decision
[b] the importance of constitutional guarantees
[c] the pressure on women in global corporations
[d] the needlessness of government interventions
答案【d】the needlessness of government interventions
解析:本题为例证题。根据题干关键词the study by catalyst定位到第七段,该例子要证明的观点在上文第六段,由问句but are such government mandates even necessary?可知作者对该做法的必要性表示质疑。所以本题选d。
34. norway’s adoption of a nationwide corporate gender quota has led to ______.
[a] the underestimation of elite women’s role
[b] the objection to female participation on bards
[c] the entry of unqualified candidates into the board
[d] the growing tension between labor and management
答案【c】the entry of unqualified candidates into the board
解析:本题为细节题。根据题干关键词norway’s adoption of a nationwide corporate gender quota与lead to定位到第八段①②句,原文①句中的lead to less experienced private sector boards与c项是同义表达。所以本题选c。
35. which of the following can be inferred from the text?
[a] women’s need in employment should be considered.
[b] feasibility should be a prime concern in policymaking.
[c] everyone should try hard to promote social justice.
[d] major social issues should be the focus of legislation.
答案【b】feasibility should be a prime concern in policymaking.
解析:本题为主旨大意题。根据首段末句but all too often such policies… does little to help average people可以判断全文的感情基调是对某政策的质疑。所以本题选b。
text 4
last thursday, the french senate passed a digital services tax, which would impose an entirely new tax on large … to targeting advertising based on user data, and the tax applies to gross revenue from such services. many french politicians and media outlets have referred to this as a “gafa tax,” meaning that it is designed to apply primarily to companies such as google, apple, facebook and amazon—in other words, multinational tech companies based in the united states.
the digital services tax now awaits the … , with the united states trade representative opening an investigation into whether the tax discriminates against american companies, which in turn could lead to trade sanctions against france.
the french tax is not just a unilateral …. these have included britain’s dpt (diverted profits tax), australia’s maal (multinational anti-avoidance law), and india’s sep (significant economic presence) test, to name but a few. at the same time, the european union, spain, britain and several other countries have all seriously contemplated digital services taxes.
these unilateral developments differ in their specifics, but they are all designed to tax multinationals on income and…. in other words, they al1 share a view that the international tax system has failed to keep up with the current economy.
in response to these many unilateral measures, the organization for economic cooperation and development (oecd) is currently working with 131 countries to reach a consensus by the end of 2020 on an international solution. …
france’s planned tax is a clear warning: unless a broad consensus can be reached on reforming the international tax system, other nations are likely to follow suit, and american companies will face a cascade of different taxes from dozens of nations that will prove burdensome and costly.
36. the french senate has passed a bill to ______.
[a] regulate digital services platforms
[b] protect french companies’ interests
[c] impose a levy on tech multinationals
[d] curb the influence of advertising
答案【c】impose a levy on tech multinationals
解析:本题为细节题。根据题干关键词the french senate定位到第一段①句,该句which would impose an entirely new tax on large multinationals与c项是同义表达。所以本题选 c。
37. it can be learned from paragraph 2 that the digital services tax ______.
[a] may trigger countermeasures against france
[b] is apt to arouse criticism at home and abroad
[c] aims to ease international trade tensions
[d] will prompt the tech giants to quit france
答案【a】may trigger countermeasures against france
解析:本题为细节题。根据题干关键词digital services tax定位到第二段,段末which in turn could lead to trade sanctions against france与a项是同义表达。所以本题选a。
38. the countries adopting the unilateral measures share the opinion that ______.
[a] redistribution of tech giants’revenue must be ensured
[b] the current international tax system needs upgrading
[c] tech multinationals’ monopoly should be prevented
[d] all countries ought to enjoy equal taxing rights
答案【b】the current international tax system needs upgrading
解析:本题为细节题。根据题干关键词unilateral 与 share the opinion定位到第四段末句:in other words, they all share a view that the international tax system has failed to keep up with the current economy,b项needs upgrading是对原文failed to keep up with的合理判断。所以本题选b。
39. it can be learned from paragraph 5 that the oeco’s current work ______.
[a] is being resisted by us companies
[b] needs to be readjusted immediately
[c] is faced with uncertain prospects
[d] needs to involve more countries
答案【c】is faced with uncertain prospects
解析:本题为细节题。根据paragraph 5与题干关键词oeco’s current work定位到第五段,该段末句中but … raise questions about…传达出的不确定与c项中的uncertain一致。所以本题选c。
40. which of the following might be the best title for this text?
[a] france is confronted with trade sanctions.
[b] france leads the charge on digital tax.
[c] france says “no” to tech multinationals.
[d] france demands a role in the digital economy.
答案【b】france leads the charge on digital tax
解析:本题为主旨大意题。文章首段由法国的digital services tax(数字服务税)引出话题,随后介绍诸多国家的类似措施。b项中的leads(引领)与digital tax完整地概括了全文内容。所以本题选b。
part b
directions:
read the following text and answer the questions by choosing the most suitable subheading from the list a~g for each of the numbered paragraphs (41~45). there are two extra subheadings. mark your answers on the answer sheet. (10 points)
[a] eye fixations are brief.
[b] too much eye contact is instinctively felt to be rude.
[c] eye contact can be a friendly social signal.
[d] personality can affect how a person reacts to eye contact.
[e] biological factors behind eye contact are being investigated.
[f] most people are not comfortable holding eye contact with strangers.
[g] eye contact can also be aggressive.
in a social situation, eye contact with another person can show that you are paying attention in a friendly way. but it can also be antagonistic such as when a political candidate turns toward their competitor during a debate and makes eye contact that signals hostility. here’s what hard science reveals about eye contact:
41.
we know that a typical infant will instinctively gaze into its mother’s eyes, and she will look back. this mutual gaze is a major part of the attachment between mother and child. in adulthood, looking at someone else in a pleasant way can be a complimentary sign of paying attention. it can catch someone’s attention in a crowded room. “eye contact and smile” can signal availability and confidence, a common-sense notion supported in studies by psychologist monica moore.
42.
neuroscientist bonnie auyeung found that the hormone oxytocin increased the amount of eye contact from men toward the interviewer during a brief interview when the direction of their gaze was recorded. this was also found in high-functioning men with some autistic spectrum symptoms, who may tend to avoid eye contact. specific brain regions that respond during direct gaze are being explored by other researches, using advanced methods of brain scanning.
43.
with the use of eye-tracking technology, julia minson of the harvard kennedy school of government concluded that eye contact can signal very different kinds of messages, depending on the situation. while eye contact may be a sign of connection or trust in friendly situations, it’s more likely to be associated with dominance or intimidation in adversarial situations. “whether you’re a politician or a parent, it might be helpful to keep in mind that trying to maintain eye contact may backfire if you’re trying to convince someone who has a different set of beliefs than you,” said minson.
44.
when we look at a face or a picture, our eyes pause on one spot at a time, often on the eyes or mouth. these pauses typically occur at about three per second, and the eyes then jump to another spot, until several important points in the image are registered like a series of snapshots. how the whole image is then assembled and perceived is still a mystery although it is the subject of current research.
45.
in people who score high in a test of neuroticism, a personality dimension associated with self-consciousness and anxiety, eye contact triggered more activity associated with avoidance, according to the finnish researcher jari hietanen and colleagues, “our findings indicate that people do not only feel different when they are the centre of attention but that their brain reactions also differ.” a more direct finding is that people who scored high for negative emotions like anxiety looked at others for shorter periods of time and reported more comfortable feelings when others did not look directly at them.
41. 答案【c】eye contact can be a friendly social signal.
解析:本题下段中pleasant和complimentary对应c项中的friendly,且下段中多次出现sign、signal。所以本题选c。
42. 答案【e】biological factors behind eye contact are being investigated.
解析:本题下段出现neuroscientist、hormone oxytocin和autistic spectrum symptoms等生物学名词,对应e项中的biological factors。且本题下段中explored与e项中investigated是同义词。所以本题选e。
43. 答案【g】eye contact can also be aggressive.
解析:由于本题下段出现了friendly和signal,考生易错选c项。但是本题下段强调的是it’s more likely to be associated with dominance or intimidation in adversarial situations(在敌对的情况下,眼神交流更可能与支配或恐吓联系在一起),g项是对这句话的总结概况。所以本题选g。
44. 答案【a】eye fixations are brief.
解析:本题下段多次出现的pause(停止)是a项中fixations(固定)的同义词。且a项中的brief是对原文three per second的概括总结。所以本题选a。
45. 答案【d】personality can affect how a person reacts to eye contact.
解析:本题下段首句出现关键词personality。所以本题选d。
part c
directions:
read the following text carefully and then translate the underlined segments into chinese. your translation should be written neatly on the answer sheet. (10 points)
following the explosion of creativity in…. renaissance ideas had spread throughout europe well into the 17th century, with the arts and sciences flourishing extraordinarily among those with a more logical disposition. (46) with the church’s teachings and ways of thinking being eclipsed by the renaissance, the gap between the medieval and modern periods had been bridged, leading to new and unexplored intellectual territories.
during the renaissance, the great minds of nicolaus copernicus, johannes kepler and galileo galilei demonstrated the power of scientific study and discovery. (47) before each of their revelations, many thinkers at the time had sustained more ancient ways of thinking, including the geocentric view that the earth was at the center of our universe. …. offering up such a theory during a time of high tension between scientific and religious minds was branded as heresy, and any such heretics that continued to spread these lies were to be punished by imprisonment or even death.
(48) despite attempts by the church to suppress this new generation of logicians and rationalists, more explanations for how the universe functioned were being made, and at a rate that the people could no longer ignore. it was with these great revelations that a new kind of philosophy founded in reason was born.
the church’s long-standing dogma was losing … (49) as many took on the duty of trying to integrate reasoning and scientific philosophies into the world, the renaissance was over and it was time for a new era—the age of reason.
the 17th and 18th centuries were times …, as were ideas of liberty, tolerance and progress. (50) such actions to seek knowledge and to understand what information we already knew were captured by the latin phrase ‘sapere aude’ or ‘dare to know’, after immanuel kant …, which they believed to be founded in knowledge.
46. with the church’s teachings and ways of thinking being eclipsed by the renaissance, the gap between the medieval and modern periods had been bridged, leading to new and unexplored intellectual territories.
【参考译文】随着文艺复兴使罗马天主教的教义和思维方式失去其重要性,中世纪时期和现代时期之间的隔阂已经得到消除,引发了很多全新的、尚未探索的知识领域的出现。
【参考采分点】①with … renaissance(1分)②the gap … bridged(0.5分)③leading to … territories(0.5分)
47. before each of their revelations, many thinkers at the time had sustained more ancient ways of thinking, including the geocentric view that the earth was at the center of our universe.
【参考译文】在各位伟大的思想家揭露真相之前,当时的许多思想家一直维持更加古老的思维方式,包括地心说,认为地球是宇宙的中心。
【参考采分点】①before … ways of thinking(1分), ②including the geocentric view that … universe(1分).
48. despite attempts by the church to suppress this new generation of logicians and rationalists, more explanations for how the universe functioned were being made, and at a rate that the people could no longer ignore.
【参考译文】虽然天主教试图压制新一代的逻辑学家和唯理论者,但是对于宇宙运作方式的更多解释不断出现,并且以人们不再能够忽视的速度进行。
【参考采分点】①despite … rationalists(1分), ②more explanations … could no longer ignore(1分).
49. as many took on the duty of trying to integrate reasoning and scientific philosophies into the world, the renaissance was over and it was time for a new era.
【参考译文】当很多唯理论者和科学家承担起这样的职责:尝试将理性和科学哲学融入世界,文艺复兴时期结束了,是时候出现一个新的时代。
【参考采分点】①as many … into the world(1分), ②the renaissance … a new era(1分).
50. such actions to seek knowledge and to understand what information we already knew were captured by the latin phrase ‘sapere aude’ or ‘dare to know’.
【参考译文】探求知识、理解已知信息的这些行为在拉丁语中被称为sapere aude,意为“勇于求知”。
【参考采分点】such … knew (1分)were captured by … ‘dare to know’(1分)
section iii writing
part a
51. directions:
the student union of your ….,write a notice in about 100 words.
write your answer on the answer sheet.
do not use your name in the notice. (10 points)
51.
审题:通知
内容:通知留学生唱歌比赛
范文:
notice
december 21, 2019
in order to make sure that you all are familiar with the upcoming singing contest, we are pleased to release this notice to provide some information of great importance.
to begin with, it is advisable for you to know that the competition will be held on january 1 in the great hall and last for four hours. furthermore, it would be helpful if you remember that the competition consists of three rounds, including an opening show, talent shows by participants, and the presentation of prizes.
if there is anything you are not clear about, please contact us by email: introduction@126.com.
li ming
part b
52. directions:
write an essay of 160-200 words based on the pictures below. in your essay, you should
1) describe…,
2) interpret the…, and
3) give your comments.
write your answer on the answer sheet. (20 points)
主题:培养习惯的重要性
范文:
as is vividly depicted in the first photo, a girl who is absorbed in her homework thinks that only by finishing it as soon as possible could she be reassured, which successfully attracts our attention. opposed to the former, what makes the second photo more attractive is the fact that a boy who is lounging on the sofa just waits until the last minute to do the homework. clearly, the photos have shown an implied meaning that it is necessary to develop good habits, which needs to be given further analysis.
leading factors behind the above phenomenon vary with each person. however, from my standpoint, the following two should rank the top two. on the top of the list is that positive and correct notions on how to deal properly with this kind of phenomenon have been highly publicized. in addition, there is the other point that no one can ignore. it is also widely accepted that more and more people view the quality of having good habits as a lifelong process and reality involve themselves in various forms of improvement.
in summary, the analysis i have made so far should at least make readers aware of the event. of all the measures, it is people’s actions that matter. if a person desires to achieve his own success, he should act in this way.

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