passage3注解:标题为红色,翻译为蓝色,分析为绿色。? ? ? ?technically, any substance other than food that alters our bodily or mental functioning is a drug. many people mistakenly believe the term drug refers only to some sort of medicine or an illegal chemical taken by drug addicts. they donto make clear that substances such as alcohol and tobacco can be just as harmfully misused as heroin and cocaine.【第19题】
? ? ??we live in a society in which the medical and social use of substances (drugs) is pervasive: an aspirin to quiet a headache, some wine to be sociable, coffee to get going in the morning,a cigarette for the nerves.【第20题】 when do these socially acceptable and apparently constructive uses of a substance become misuses? first of all, most substances taken in excess will produce negative effects such as poisoning or intense perceptual distortions. repeated use of al substance can also lead to physical addiction or substance dependence. 【第21题】dependence is marked first by an increased tolerance, with more and more of the substance required to produce the desired effect, and then by the appearance of unpleasant withdrawal symptoms when the substance is discontinued.
? ? ?drugs(substances) that affect the central nervous system and alter perception, mood, and behavior are known as psychoactive substances. psychoactive substances are commonly grouped according to whether they are stimulants, depressants, or hallucinogens. stimulants initially speed up or activate the central nervous system, whereas depressants slow it down. hallucinogens have their primary effect on perception, distorting and altering it in a variety of ways including producing hallucinations. 【第22题】these are the substances often called psychedelic(from the greek word meaning s state of consciousness.
一、文章结构分析
? ? ? ? 这是一篇涉及“物质滥用”的文章。文章首先通过对drug(药物)一词的界定,指
1997年考研英语阅读真题及解析【第三篇】 – 哔哩哔哩(1997年考研英语第四篇阅读)插图
出“物质滥用”的来历。接着论述了“物质滥用”的危害,最后介绍了影响人的神经系统的三种药物。
? ? ? ?第一段:首先对drug一词做出界定,指出人们对它的误解。接着指出“物质滥用”替代“药物滥用”的原因。
? ? ? ?第二段:介绍了物质(药物)在医疗和社交方面的广泛使用,并分别以firstofall和also为标记,解释了这样的物质变成滥用的原因。
? ? ? ?第三段:介绍了影响神经系统的三种精神活性物质,并分别表述其特点。
19.in that.
[a] substances can alter our bodily or mental functioning if illegally used
[b] is only related to a limited number of drugtakers
[c]alcohol and tobacco are as fatal as heroin and cocaine
[d]many substances other than heroin or cocaine can also be poisonous
19.“物质滥用”(第一段第五行)比“药物滥用”更为可取的原因是。
[a]如果非法使用,物质会改变我们的生理或心理机能
[b]“药物滥用”仅与少数吸毒者有关
[c]烟酒同海洛因和可卡因一样致命
[d]除海洛因和可卡因外,许多其他物质也可能有害

20. the word (line 1, paragraph 2)
might mean
[a] widespread
[b] overwhelming
[c] piercing
[d] fashionable
20.“pervasive”一词(第二段第一行)的意思可能是。
[a]分布广泛的,普遍的
[b]压倒一切的、占主流的
[c]尖的、穿透的
[d]时髦的、流行的

21.physical dependence on certain substances results from a
[a]uncontrolled consumption of them over long periods of time
[b]exclusive use of them for social purposes
[c]quantitative application of them to the treatment of diseases
[d]careless employment of them for unpleasant symptoms
21.人们对某些物质产生依赖性的原因
[a]长时间无节制地嗜用它们
[b]仅将它们用于社交目的
[c]定量地将它们用于治病
[d]由于不良症状而粗心地使用它们

22.from the last paragraph we can infer that.
[a] stimulants function positively on the mind
[b] hallucinogens are in themselves harmful to health
[c] depressants are the worst type of psychoactive substances
[d] the three types of psychoactive substances are commonly used in groups
22.从文章最后第一段我们可以推断。
[a]兴奋剂对心智有积极影响
[b]幻觉剂本身就危害健康
[c]抑制剂是精神活性物质中最坏的一种
[d]三种精神活性物质经常被一起使用

二、核心词汇与超纲词汇
(1)addict(n.)入迷的人,上瘾的人(v.)使沉溺,使入迷,使上瘾;drug~吸毒者(2)alcohol(n.)酒精
(3)illegal(a.)非法的;il—前缀,表示“非,不”。如:illiterate文盲的,未受教育的(4)neutral(a.)中立的;中性的
(5)heroin(n.)海洛因
(6)constructive(a.)有建设性的
(7)excess(a.)过量的,额外的;(n.)过量,过剩;in~过量
(8)negative(a.)否定的,消极的,反面的,负的;(n.)负数;(摄影)底片(9)perceptual(a.)感觉的
(10)withdrawal(n.)收回,取回,撤回;戒毒(脱瘾)的过程;withdraw(v.)收回,撤回;退出,缩回
(11)nervous(a.)神经的;神经过敏的,紧张不安的;nerve(n.)神经;勇气,胆量(12)psychoactive(a.)作用于神经的,影响或改变心理状态的;psycho—:前缀,表示“精神”,“心理”;如:psychoanalysis精神分析;psychobiology精神生物学(13)hallucination(n.)幻觉;妄想
三、阅读答案:d a? a?b
四、全文翻译:
? ? ? ?从专业角度说,除食品外,任何能改变我们生理和心理机能的物质都是药物。很多人错误地认为“药物”一词仅仅指某些药品或是吸毒者服用的违禁化学品。他们没有意识到诸如酒精、烟草这些我们熟悉的物质也是药物。这就是为什么现在许多内科医生和心理学家使用“物质”这个更加中性的词。他们常用“物质滥用”而不用“药物滥用”来清楚表示滥用酒精、烟草这样的物质可能如同滥用海洛因和可卡因一样有害。(长难句①)
? ? ? ?我们生活在一个物质(药物)在医疗和社交方面使用广泛的社会里:用来缓解头痛的阿斯匹林,用来应酬的酒,早晨用来提神的咖啡,还有定神用的香烟。(长难句②)使用这些物质得到了社会认可,且显然具有积极的作用,但什么时候就变成滥用了呢?首先,大多数物质的过量使用都会产生负面影响,如中毒或严重的知觉错乱。反复使用一种物质可以导致成瘾或对该物质的依赖。依赖的最初表现是不断增长的耐药量,要产生预期的效果需要的药剂量越来越大,然后是一旦中断使用就会出现难受的停药症状。(长难句)
? ? ? ? 影响中枢神经系统,改变知觉、情绪和行为的药物(物质)被称为精神活性物质,它们通常按照功能被分为兴奋剂、镇静剂和幻觉剂。兴奋剂主要起到加速或激活中枢神经系统的作用,而镇静剂则减缓它的活动。(佳句)幻觉剂主要影响人的知觉,通过多种方式扭曲或改变知觉,其中包括产生幻觉。这些物质常被认为能“引起幻觉”(psychedelic一词源于希腊语,意为“心灵显现”),因为它们似乎能彻底改变人的意识状态。

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